Ohno, Y., & Otaki, J. M.. (2015). Live Cell Imaging of Butterfly Pupal and Larval Wings In Vivo. PLOS ONE
, 10(6), e0128332.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128332
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“© 2015 ohno, otaki. this is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.butterfly wing color patterns are determined during the late larval and early pupal stages. characterization of wing epithelial cells at these stages is thus critical to understand how wing structures, including color patterns, are determined. previously, we successfully recorded real-time in vivo images of developing butterfly wings over time at the tissue level. in this study, we employed similar in vivo fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize developing wing epithelial cells in the late larval and early pupal stages 1 hour post-pupation. both larval and pupal epithelial cells were rich in mitochondria and intracellular networks of endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting high metabolic activities, likely in preparation for cellular division, polyploidization, and differentiation. larval epithelial cells in the wing imaginal disk were relatively large horizontally and tightly packed, whereas pupal epithelial cells were smaller and relatively loosely packed. furthermore, larval cells were flat, whereas pupal cells were vertically elongated as deep as 130 μm. in pupal cells, many endosome-like or autophagosome-like structures were present in the cellular periphery down to approximately 10 μm in depth, and extensive epidermal feet or filopodia-like processes were observed a few micrometers deep from the cellular surface. cells were clustered or bundled from approximately 50 μm in depth to deeper levels. from 60 μm to 80 μm in depth, horizontal connections between these clusters were observed. the prospective eyespot and marginal focus areas were resistant to fluorescent dyes, likely because of their non-flat conelike structures with a relatively thick cuticle. these in vivo images provide important information with which to understand processes of epithelial cell differentiation and color pattern determination in butterfly wings.”