Deshmukh, S. K., Verekar, S. A., & Natarajan, K.. (2006). Poisonous and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms of India. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
, 8(3), 251–262.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v8.i3.70
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“Mycetism or mycetismus (mushroom poisoning) is caused by toxins present in the basidiomata even after it is properly cooked. there are mainly seven different types of poisoning syndromes (phalloides syndrome, orellanus syndrome, gyromitra syndrome, muscarin syndrome, pantherina syndrome, psilocybin syndrome, and gastrointestinal syndrome), along with paxillus syndrome and coprine syndrome. the indian subcontinent consists of several ecoclimatic zones and it is a treasure trove of fungal diversity. in fact, the western ghats, which form a long mountainous region along the west coast of india, is considered as one of the hot spots of biodiversity. the mushroom biota of this large country is still not explored fully and to date only about 1200 species of fungi belonging to the orders agaricales, russulales, and boletales are described in comparison to about 14,000 species of mushrooms reported from all over the world. this represents only 10% of the world biota of mushrooms, and the majority of the other 90% remain to be discovered in the tropical regions of the world. the present review deals with the distribution of poisonous and hallucinogenic species of mushrooms described from india. a survey of the literature reveals the species of fungi belonging to various genera that are reported from india, which cause the major types of mushroom poisoning syndromes. among the total number of mushrooms reported from india, only a very small percentage are poisonous or hallucinogenic. even though there are several reports in the newspapers about poisoning after consumption of mushrooms, there is only one report of a clinically proven case of mushroom poisoning by chlorophyllum molybdites in india. there is a need for greater awareness of mushroom poisoning among the general public and clinicians in india. the need of a database of poisonous mushrooms and the symptoms of mushroom poisoning along with the germ plasm collections is emphasized. there is a great need of chemical investigations of indian mushrooms for their active principles, which can possibly be used in a wide range of metabolic and infectious diseases, such as cancer, aids, and others. © 2006 by begell house, inc.”
Hood, R. W.. (2001). Review: Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion
, 11(4), 285–286.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1207/S15327582IJPR1104_08
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“In this book, renowned philosopher and scholar of religion huston smith, takes a serious look at the use of psychedelic drugs as a means to achieve mystical union with the divine. in a unique blend of direct experience and academic depth, smith examines this controversial subject and describes the historic and turbulent academic experiments of the sixties in which he was both a subject and an observer. smith begins by telling the story of his own initiation into the world of psychedelic drugs in the company of timothy leary a meeting arranged by aldous huxley and the profound effect it had on his understanding of reality. in wrestling with the question do drugs have religious import? he draws on history, theology, philosophy, psychology, and anthropology. he tells of fascinating experiments that attempted to shed light on this question, such as the one in which he participated as a guide, where twenty volunteers mostly seminary students were given psilocybin before they attended a traditional good friday church service. he discusses as well the use of peyote in native american sacred rituals and the hallucinogenic plant soma in ancient india. throughout, he does not approach the question of drugs and religion from any fixed standpoint. instead, he mines his own experiences and his relationships to pioneers in this field to come up with insights on this intriguing subject that are not available in any other book written for the general public.”